Australian Curriculum Categories


The evidence for the emergence and establishment of ancient societies (including art, iconography, writing tools and pottery) 


  • exploring an early example of art (for example, the 17 000 BCE great bull paintings from the Lascaux Cave in France) and discussing why they might have been painted

    (Skills: Literacy, Critical and Creative Thinking)
    • discussing the evolving nature of the evidence in this period, which shows increasingly sophisticated forms of technology (for example, the transition from making tools out of stone, bone and wood to metalworking)
    (Skills: Literacy, Critical and Creative Thinking)
    • identifying sources of evidence for the emergence of organised states (for example, the Cuneiform script phonetic writing of the Sumerians c.3500 BCE; the ancient law code of Hammurabi clay tablets from ancient Babylon c.1790 BCE; artefacts found in the tombs at Ur Sumer c.2500 BCE, which indicate the presence of either royalty or priestesses; pottery shards and fragments discovered in Palestine made of mud from the River Nile in Egypt, as evidence of trade)
    (Skills: Literacy, Critical and Creative Thinking, Intercultural Understanding)

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