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The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathemati...

The proficiency strands **understanding, fluency, problem-solving** and **reasoning** are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the language to build in the developmental aspects of the learning of mathematics. The achievement standards reflect the content and encompass the proficiencies.

At this year level:

**understanding**includes making connections between representations of numbers, using fractions to represent probabilities, comparing and ordering fractions and decimals and representing them in various ways, describing transformations and identifying line and rotational symmetry**fluency**includes choosing appropriate units of measurement for calculation of perimeter and area, using estimation to check the reasonableness of answers to calculations and using instruments to measure angles**problem-solving**includes formulating and solving authentic problems using whole numbers and measurements and creating financial plans**reasoning**includes investigating strategies to perform calculations efficiently, continuing patterns involving fractions and decimals, interpreting results of chance experiments, posing appropriate questions for data investigations and interpreting data sets.

(source: www.australiancurriculum.edu.au)

By the end of Year 5, students solve simple problems involving the four operations using a range of strategies. They check the reasonableness of answers using estimation and rounding. Students identify and describe factors and multiples. They identify and explain strategies for finding unknown quantities in number sentences involving the four operations. They explain plans for simple budgets. Students connect three-dimensional objects with their two-dimensional representations. They describe transformations of two-dimensional shapes and identify line and rotational symmetry. Students interpret different data sets.

Students order decimals and unit fractions and locate them on number lines. They add and subtract fractions with the same denominator. Students continue patterns by adding and subtracting fractions and decimals. They use appropriate units of measurement for length, area, volume, capacity and mass, and calculate perimeter and area of rectangles. They convert between 12- and 24-hour time. Students use a grid reference system to locate landmarks. They measure and construct different angles. Students list outcomes of chance experiments with equally likely outcomes and assign probabilities between 0 and 1. Students pose questions to gather data, and construct data displays appropriate for the data.

(source: www.australiancurriculum.edu.au)