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The proficiency strands understanding, fluency, problem-solving and reasoning are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathemati...

The proficiency strands **understanding, fluency, problem-solving** and **reasoning** are an integral part of mathematics content across the three content strands: number and algebra, measurement and geometry, and statistics and probability. The proficiencies reinforce the significance of working mathematically within the content and describe how the content is explored or developed. They provide the language to build in the developmental aspects of the learning of mathematics. The achievement standards reflect the content and encompass the proficiencies.

At this year level:

**understanding**includes describing patterns involving indices and recurring decimals, identifying commonalities between operations with algebra and arithmetic, connecting rules for linear relations with their graphs, explaining the purpose of statistical measures and explaining measurements of perimeter and area**fluency**includes calculating accurately with simple decimals, indices and integers; recognising equivalence of common decimals and fractions including recurring decimals; factorising and simplifying basic algebraic expressions and evaluating perimeters and areas of common shapes and volumes of three-dimensional objects**problem-solving**includes formulating and modelling practical situations involving ratios, profit and loss, areas and perimeters of common shapes and using two-way tables and Venn diagrams to calculate probabilities**reasoning**includes justifying the result of a calculation or estimation as reasonable, deriving probability from its complement, using congruence to deduce properties of triangles, finding estimates of means and proportions of populations.

(source: www.australiancurriculum.edu.au)

By the end of Year 8, students solve everyday problems involving rates, ratios and percentages. They describe index laws and apply them to whole numbers. They describe rational and irrational numbers. Students solve problems involving profit and loss. They make connections between expanding and factorising algebraic expressions. Students solve problems relating to the volume of prisms. They make sense of time duration in real applications. They identify conditions for the congruence of triangles and deduce the properties of quadrilaterals. Students model authentic situations with two-way tables and Venn diagrams. They choose appropriate language to describe events and experiments. They explain issues related to the collection of data and the effect of outliers on means and medians in that data.

Students use efficient mental and written strategies to carry out the four operations with integers. They simplify a variety of algebraic expressions. They solve linear equations and graph linear relationships on the Cartesian plane. Students convert between units of measurement for area and volume. They perform calculations to determine perimeter and area of parallelograms, rhombuses and kites. They name the features of circles and calculate the areas and circumferences of circles. Students determine the probabilities of complementary events and calculate the sum of probabilities.

(source: www.australiancurriculum.edu.au)