Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills Teaching Resources

ELAR 1.2

Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

  • (1) demonstrate phonological awareness by:
    • (A) producing a series of rhyming words;
      • (i) recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound;
      • (ii) distinguishing between long and short vowel sounds in one-syllable words;
      • (iii) recognizing the change in spoken word when a specified phoneme is added, changed, or removed;
      • (iv) blending spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words, including initial and/or final consonant blends;
      • (v) manipulating phonemes within base words; and
      • (vi) segmenting spoken one-syllable words of three to five phonemes into individual phonemes, including words with initial and/or final consonant blends;
      • (vii) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:
    • (B) decoding words in isolation and in context by applying common letter sound correspondences;
      • (i) decoding words with initial and final consonant blends, digraphs, and trigraphs;
      • (ii) decoding words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including vowel digraphs and diphthongs; and r-controlled syllables;
      • (iii) using knowledge of base words to decode common compound words and contractions;
      • (iv) decoding words with inflectional endings, including -ed, -s, and -es; and
      • (v) identifying and reading at least 100 high-frequency words from a research-based list;
      • (vi) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:
    • (C) spelling words with closed syllables, open syllables, VCe syllables, vowel teams, and r-controlled syllables;
      • (i) spelling words with initial and final consonant blends, digraphs, and trigraphs;
      • (ii) spelling words using sound-spelling patterns; and
      • (iii) spelling high-frequency words from a research-based list;
      • (iv) demonstrate print awareness by identifying the information that different parts of a book provide;
    • (D) alphabetize a series of words to the first or second letter and use a dictionary to find words; and
    • (E) develop handwriting by printing words, sentences, and answers legibly leaving appropriate spaces between words.


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