Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills Teaching Resources


Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

  • (1) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:
  • (2) plan by generating ideas for writing through class discussions and drawings;
    • (A) develop drafts in oral, pictorial, or written form by organizing ideas;
    • (B) revise drafts by adding details in pictures or words;
    • (C) edit drafts with adult assistance using standard English conventions, including:
    • (D) complete sentences;
      • (i) verbs;
      • (ii) singular and plural nouns;
      • (iii) adjectives, including articles;
      • (iv) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words; and
      • (v) prepositions;
      • (vi) pronouns, including subjective, objective, and possessive cases;
      • (vii) capitalization of the first letter in a sentence and name;
      • (viii) punctuation marks at the end of declarative sentences; and
      • (ix) share writing.
    • (E) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:
  • (3) dictate or compose literary texts, including personal narratives; and
    • (A) dictate or compose informational texts.
    • (B) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:
  • (4) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;
    • (A) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;
    • (B) gather information from a variety of sources with adult assistance;
    • (C) demonstrate understanding of information gathered with adult assistance; and
    • (D) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.
    • (E) listen actively and ask questions to understand information and answer questions using multi-word responses;
    • (F) restate and follow oral directions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;
    • (G) share information and ideas by speaking audibly and clearly using the conventions of language;
    • (H) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including taking turns; and
    • (I) develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself, using common greetings, and expressing needs and wants.


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