Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills Teaching Resources

ELAR 2.2

Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

  • (1) demonstrate phonological awareness by:
    • (A) producing a series of rhyming words;
      • (i) distinguishing between long and short vowel sounds in one-syllable and multi-syllable words;
      • (ii) recognizing the change in spoken word when a specified phoneme is added, changed, or removed; and
      • (iii) manipulating phonemes within base words;
      • (iv) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:
    • (B) decoding words with short, long, or variant vowels, trigraphs, and blends;
      • (i) decoding words with silent letters such as knife and gnat;
      • (ii) decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;
      • (iii) decoding compound words, contractions, and common abbreviations;
      • (iv) decoding words using knowledge of syllable division patterns such as VCCV, VCV, and VCCCV;
      • (v) decoding words with prefixes, including un-, re-, and dis-, and inflectional endings, including -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est; and
      • (vi) identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;
      • (vii) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:
    • (C) spelling one-syllable and multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;
      • (i) spelling words with silent letters such as knife and gnat;
      • (ii) spelling compound words, contractions, and common abbreviations;
      • (iii) spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;
      • (iv) spelling words using knowledge of syllable division patterns, including words with double consonants in the middle of the word; and
      • (v) spelling words with prefixes, including un-, re-, and dis-, and inflectional endings, including -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est;
      • (vi) alphabetize a series of words and use a dictionary or glossary to find words; and
    • (D) develop handwriting by accurately forming all cursive letters using appropriate strokes when connecting letters.

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