Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills Teaching Resources

ELAR 4.11

Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

  • (1) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;
    • (A) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:
    • (B) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion; and
      • (i) developing an engaging idea with relevant details;
      • (ii) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;
    • (C) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:
    • (D) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;
      • (i) past tense of irregular verbs;
      • (ii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;
      • (iii) adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;
      • (iv) capitalization of historical periods, events, and documents; titles of books; stories and essays; and languages, races, and nationalities;
      • (v) adverbs that convey frequency and adverbs that convey degree;
      • (vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;
      • (vii) pronouns, including reflexive;
      • (viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects, predicates, and sentences;
      • (ix) punctuation marks, including apostrophes in possessives, commas in compound sentences, and quotation marks in dialogue; and
      • (x) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words; and
      • (xi) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

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