# Fact Families Teaching Resources

Explore fact families with printable worksheets, digital activities, math games and more — all created by teachers, for teachers!

This collection of curriculum-aligned and differentiated resources was designed to help primary students better understand the relationships between numbers and to develop their maths mentals skills.

*Looking to learn more about fact families, or on the hunt for new ways to engage your students? Read on for a primer from our teacher team!*

## What Are Fact Families?

Let's start at the beginning with a definition!

Basically, a fact family is a group of three different numbers that are related to each other (the way members of a family are) and can be used to create four different number sentences.

The goal is to use these related numbers — or families — to help kids make the connections between subtraction and addition (although it can be used for multiplication and division in the upper years too). Knowing one fact in a family can help students solve other maths facts.

So, for example …

## Addition and Subtraction Fact Family Examples

Some fact families can create two addition number sentences and two subtraction number sentences.

For example, the numbers 3, 4 and 7 form a fact family and can be represented by the following number sentences:

- 3 + 4 = 7
- 4 + 3 = 7
- 7 - 3 = 4
- 7 - 4 = 3

Subtraction is the opposite of addition, so the familial relationship here is an inverse one.

## What Is a Fact Family Triangle?

A fact family triangle is a simple visual representation of a fact family that can help your students understand the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction.

Each triangle consists of three numbers written at the corners of a triangle, with the largest number at the top and the two smaller numbers at the bottom corners. The two smaller numbers are always the two addends in a simple addition equation, and the largest number is the sum of those two addends.

Fact family triangles are a helpful tool for teaching the commutative property of addition, which states that the order of the addends does not affect the sum.

## What Are Number Bonds?

Another concept that ties into fact family triangles is the number bond.

This visual representation of the relationship between numbers is made up of two parts that combine to make a whole. It is a way of showing the different ways that numbers can be broken down into smaller parts.

For example, the number 6 can be broken down into a number bond of 2 and 4, or 3 and 3. These bonds can be represented visually as circles or other shapes, with the whole number in the center and the parts branching off from it. You can set it up in a triangular shape too, similar to the fact family triangle.

## What Is Part-Part-Whole?

We can't talk about fact families without discussing part-part-whole as these two concepts are often taught in concert with one another.

Part-part-whole refers to a problem-solving strategy that involves breaking down a number or quantity into smaller parts or components and then combining them to determine the whole.

The concept can be used in early maths education to help kids understand basic addition and subtraction, as well as other maths operations, and ties in nicely with fact families.

After all, by understanding the relationship between the parts and the whole in a fact family, students can use the part-part-whole strategy to solve related problems. For example, if a student knows that 3 + 4 = 7, they can also determine that 7 - 4 = 3, by recognising that 4 and 3 are the parts that make up the whole of 7.

## Hands-On Fact Family Activities

Alright, now that we’ve got that out of the way, feel free to explore this fact family collection for ideas for your classroom, and don't forget to try these ideas from our teacher team!

### Coloured Counters Activity

Teaching fact families is like teaching any other maths concept — you want to start with something concrete before you move on to the more abstract concepts.

Get out the two coloured counters, provide each student with 7 counters, and tell them to place the counters in two groups.

Call on students to ask what their groups were, and write the equation on your whiteboard for students to see first as an addition problem.

For example, if a student has groups of 4 and 3, you would write 4+3=7.

Ask that student to flip their counters, so the groups are opposite, and write the representative equation: 3+4=7.

Now ask the student to take away one group — 7-4=3.

And so on.

### Pop It Fact Families

Push bubble fidget toys are a hot commodity in schools these days, so use them for maths rotations!

Hide facts (with answers) throughout the Pop It by writing numbers on the bubbles. If the numbers are adjacent and make a completed fact — for example, 7-4=3 — the students can push the numbers down!

### Create a Fact Family House

Following the family theme, building a fact family house is not just a good way to cement the concept but also a pretty fun one for kids.

They can draw their own houses — model one on the whiteboard showing a triangle roof and a square house with four squares for 'windows' inside.

In the attic (the triangle), have your students write the 3 numbers of the fact family.

In each window, they can then write the 4 number sentences that can be made with those three numbers.

- Plus Plan
### Maths Mazes (Friends of Ten)

A set of friends of ten mazes where students find missing addends to solve the maze.

- Free Plan
### Linking Addition and Subtraction Worksheet

Explore the relationship between addition and subtraction with a fact family worksheet.

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### Missing Addend Avenue - Find the Missing Number Worksheet

Practise using various subtraction strategies with a fun dice-roll math maze.

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### Think Addition - Fact Family Worksheets

Use addition to solve subtraction problems with this worksheet.

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### Fact Family Maths Blast Off - Addition and Subtraction

Demonstrate an understanding of addition and subtraction fact families with a fun cut and sort activity.

- Plus Plan
### Rainbow Facts Matching Activity

Practise number bonds with this fun rainbow-themed hands-on activity.

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### Fact Families (Addition and Subtraction) Interactive Activity

Use this fact family houses resource to teach and practise addition and subtraction fact families with your students.

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### Tens Frame - Addition and Subtraction Match-Up Activity

Build addition and subtraction skills with two tens frame matching games.

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### Addition and Subtraction Fact Families Teaching Presentation

A 19-page editable teaching presentation to use in the classroom when introducing addition and subtraction fact families.

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### Making Ten Cut and Paste Worksheet

A cut-and-paste worksheet to practise finding the missing addend when making ten.

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### Fact Family Find and Flip - Addition and Subtraction (Middle)

Addition and subtraction game cards demonstrating the relationship between fact families.

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### Addition Strategies: Make a Ten Worksheet

A 2-page worksheet that uses ten frames to model the “making ten” addition strategy.

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### Fact Family Find and Flip - Addition and Subtraction (Upper)

Addition and subtraction game cards demonstrating the relationship between fact families.

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### Fact Family Find and Flip - Addition and Subtraction (Lower)

Addition and subtraction game cards demonstrating the relationship between fact families.

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### Rainbow Numbers Poster

A poster showing rainbow numbers, or fact families to ten.

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### Addition Strategies Posters

A set of 9 maths addition strategies posters for the lower years.

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### Rainbow Facts - Zero-Tail Game

Practise rainbow number facts when solving addition problems involving two-digit numbers with this fun game.

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### Exploring Strategies for Subtraction PowerPoint

Explore and teach multiple subtraction strategies with an instructional slide deck

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### Parts of a Number Sentence (Multiplication and Division) Posters

Four posters to display in the classroom explaining the elements of multiplication and division number sentences.

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### Rainbow Facts - Addition Match Up Cards

A bright and fun game to play in the classroom when learning the Friends of Ten and Rainbow Facts.

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### Fact Families Maths Group Activity

Use this hands-on addition and subtraction strategy activity in your next guided math group lesson!

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### Bridging to Ten PowerPoint

A 14-slide PowerPoint that uses engaging animations to step students through the 'bridging to ten' addition strategy.

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### Part-Part-Whole - Addition and Subtraction Teaching Presentation

Teach your students how to effectively use a bar model to solve 1-digit addition and subtraction number facts using the part-part-whole strategy.

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### Making Ten Memory Game

Practise making ten using ten frames with this fun memory game.